How many types of organic reactions are possible?
How many types of organic reactions are possible?
First, let us try to understand what a chemical reaction is as an organic reaction is a type of chemical reaction. A chemical reaction is when bonds of an element or compound are broken down within the reactant molecules which results in the formation of new bonds within the resultant molecules to form a product substance.
Chemical reactions happen every day and all around us. The light that we receive from the sun is the by-product of some chemical reactions taking place, our body’s food metabolism is also an example of a chemical reaction taking place. To further understand chemical reactions, we must first know the difference between physical and chemical changes.
We can learn the difference with the perfect example of both chemical and physical change and that is the burning candle. When we light a candle, we can see that as time pass by, the candle’s physical state turns to wax and if the candle is covered with something airtight, the flame will extinguish.
In this example, the conversion of the solid candle into wax is a physical change while the chemical change in this example is the combustion of the candle. In the event of a physical change, only the physical state of the object or substance changes while for chemical changes, new products or substances are formed and during that process, energy is either absorbed or released. Therefore, we can observe that physical changes will accompany a chemical change but, in many cases, not the other way around.
Chemical Reactions Basic Concepts
- When a chemical reaction takes place, two or more molecules interact with each other to form a new substance.
- Reactants are the chemicals that interact to generate new ones, whereas products are the ones that are formed.
- Chemical reactions play important roles in our daily lives and manufacturing industries and factories as well. Fermentation of wine, rotting of food products, rusting of some metals are all chemical reactions that take place around us every day.
- During a chemical reaction, a chemical change should occur and it is mostly accompanied by a physical change like change in colour, precipitation, heat production, etc.
- A reaction can occur between two atoms, ions, or molecules, in which they establish a new link without destroying or creating an atom, yet a new product is generated from reactants.
- The reaction rate is dependent on various factors like concentration of reactants, temperature, pressure, etc.
Types of Chemical Reactions
The different types of chemical reactions are as follows:
- Decomposition Reaction
- Redox Reaction
- Synthesis Reaction
- Combustion Reaction
- Double-Displacement or Precipitation Reaction
- Neutralization Reaction
Organic chemistry is a field of chemistry that deals with the study of properties, structure and reactions of organic elements and compounds. Their structural formula is determined by studying their structure. Physical and chemical characteristics are studied, as well as chemical reactivity, to better understand their behaviour. The chemical synthesis of natural products, medicines, and polymers, as well as the laboratory and theoretical (in silico) research of individual organic molecules, are all part of the study of organic processes.
There are 5 main types of organic reactions:
- Elimination Reaction
- Addition Reaction
- Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
- Substitution Reaction
- Radical Reactions
Some reactions take place by removing or eliminating the adjacent atoms. When the reaction has taken place and multiple bonds are formed, small molecules are released as products.
An example of elimination reaction is as follows:
Conversion to ethylene from ethyl chloride.
CH3CH2Cl > HCl + CH2=CH2
As you can see, HCl is the molecule that was eliminated which was the result of the combination of the Cl– on the right with the H+ atom from the carbon atom which is seen on the left.
The addition reaction is the opposite of the elimination reaction. Here, two compounds are merged with the carbon-carbon multiple bonds.
An example of an addition reaction would be ethylene combines with hydrochloric acid to form ethylene chloride.
CH2=CH2 + HCl > CH3CH2Cl
To produce new material, one atom or a group of atoms is substituted by another atom or a group of atoms in a substitution process.
In a substitution reaction, one atom or a group of atoms is substituted by another atom or a group of atoms to form a new substance.
For example, the nucleophile in a nucleophilic substitution reaction must have a pair of electrons and a high affinity for the electropositive species when compared to the substituent that was previously present.
Radicals are involved in most of the organic reactions. A free radical system is involved when a saturated hydrocarbon has a halogen added to it. A radical reaction involves three phases and they are initiation, propagation and termination.